Determination of fungal pathogens associated with Cuminum cyminum in Turkey
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The occurrence of fungal pathogens, associated with cumin production of Turkey, was determined during 2011 and 2012. A total of 379 isolates were classified as Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. sambucinum, F. avenaceum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Alternaria burnsii, A. alternata, A. infectoria, Embellisia sp., and Rhizoctonia solani. Pathogenicity tests showed that F. oxysporum f.sp. cumini, F. solani, F. equiseti, M. phaseolina, A. burnsii, and A. alternata were highly pathogenic. A. burnsii and F. oxysporum f.sp. cumini were the major risk factors for cumin cultivation in Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first report on F. oxysporum f.sp. cumini, F. solani, F. equiseti, M. phaseolina, and A. alternata in Turkey.