(Co-)combustion of additives, water hyacinth and sewage sludge: Thermogravimetric, kinetic, gas and thermodynamic modeling analyses
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Additives and biomass were co-combusted with sewage sludge (SS) to promote SS incineration treatment and energy generation. (Co-)combustion characteristics of sewage sludge (SS), water hyacinth (WH), and 5% five additives (K2CO3, Na2CO3, Mg2CO3, MgO and Al2O3) were quantified and compared using thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) and numerical analyses. The combustion performance of SS declined slightly with the additives which was demonstrated by the 0.03-to-0.25-fold decreases in comprehensive combustibility index (CCI). The co-combustion performed well given the 0.31-fold increase in CCI. Kinetic parameters were estimated using the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods. Apparent activation energy estimates by OFW and KAS were consistent. The addition of K2CO3 and MgCO3 decreased the weighted average activation energy of SS. Adding K2CO3 to the blend reduced CO2, NO2, SO2, HCN and NH3 emissions. CO2, NO2 and SO2 emissions were higher from WH than SS. Adding WH or K2CO3 to SS increased CO2, NO2 and SO2 but HCN and NH3 emissions. Based on both catalytic effects and evolved gases, K2CO3 was potentially an optimal option for the catalytic combustion among the tested additives. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.