OCCURRENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF CEREAL CYST NEMATODE, HETERODERA FILIPJEVI (NEMATA: HETERODERIDAE), IN BOLU PROVINCE OF TURKEY
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Cereal cyst nematodes, Heterodera filipjevi, parasitize the roots of wheat and cause significant yield losses around the world. Cereal cyst nematodes are one of the most important and endemic problems in wheat-growing areas especially where rainfall is limited and monoculture crop production practices exist. In Turkey, cereal cyst nematodes are considered among the most damaging pests in wheat. Identifying cyst nematode species and determining their prevalence and distribution in Turkey are important for predicting potential spread in the future. This survey aimed to identify cyst nematode species and to assess their prevalence in cereal growing areas of Bolu province in Turkey. Cereal cyst nematode cysts were found in 83% of the surveyed fields. Prevalence of cysts was greater in cereal-growing areas in the provincial center and in the Gerede district. Morphological features of second-stage juveniles and cysts were examined, and DNA was extracted from second- stage juveniles and the species-specific Sequence Characterized Amplified Region ( SCAR) primers were used for molecular identification. Based on both morphological and molecular methods, all samples were identified as H. filipjevi. This study was the first comprehensive investigation of H. filipjevi prevalence in cereal fields in Bolu. This information is of value to alert personnel of wheat breeding programs to develop local resistant varieties to target H. filipjevi.