Effect of Mn Addition on Structural and Superconducting Properties of (Bi, Pb)-2223 Superconducting Ceramics
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This study deals with the effect of Mn addition on the structural and superconducting properties of Bi1.8Pb0.4Sr2Mn (x) Ca2.2Cu3.0O (y) ceramics with x=0,0.03,0.06,0.15,0.3 and 0.6 by means of X-ray analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersive X-ray (EDX), resistivity, and transport critical current density (J (c)) measurements. Zero-resistivity transition temperatures (T (c)) of the samples produced via the standard solid-state reaction method are estimated from the dc resistivity measurements. Moreover, the phase fraction and lattice parameters are determined from XRD measurements while the microstructure, surface morphology and element composition analyses of the samples are investigated by SEM and EDX measurements, respectively. It is found that T (c) values are obtained to decrease from 109 K to 85 K; likewise, J (c) values are observed to reduce from 3200 A/cm(2) to 125 A/cm(2) with increasing Mn addition. According to the refinement of cell parameters done by considering the structural modulation, the Mn addition is confirmed by both an increase of the lattice parameter a and a decrease of the cell parameter c of the samples in comparison with that of the pure sample (Mn0). SEM measurements show that not only the surface morphology and grain connectivity are seen to degrade but the grain sizes of the samples are found to decrease with the increase of the Mn addition as well. The EDX results reveal that the elements used for the preparation of samples distribute homogeneously and the Mn atoms enter into the crystal structure by replacing Sr and Cu atoms. The possible reasons for the obtained degradation in microstructural and superconducting properties are also interpreted.