Role of annealing time and temperature on structural and superconducting properties of (Bi, Pb)-2223 thin films produced by sputtering
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This study reports the effect of annealing time (15 min, 1.5 and 3 h) and temperature (850, 860 and 870 degrees C) on the structural and superconducting properties of thin films by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray analysis (XRD), electron dispersive X-Ray (EDX), resistivity and transport critical current density (J(c)) measurements. Zero resistivity transition temperatures (T-c) of the films produced are estimated from the dc resistivity measurements. In addition, the phase and lattice parameters are determined from XRD patterns when the microstructure, surface morphology and element composition analyses of the samples are investigated by SEM and EDX measurements, respectively. The results indicate that T-c values of the films obtained are observed to be in a range of 23-102 K. The T-c of the film annealed at 870 degrees C for 3 h is found to be the smallest (23 K) while the film annealed at 860 degrees C for 3 h is noted to obtain the maximum T-c value (102 K). On the other hand, the maximum (minimum) J(c) is found to be about 2068 A/cm(2) (20 A/cm(2)) for the film annealed at 860 degrees C for 3 h (870 for 3 h). Moreover, according to the refinement of cell parameters done by considering the structural modulation, the greatest Bi-2223 phase fraction is noticed to belong to the film annealed at 860 degrees C for 3 h. Furthermore, SEM measurements show that the best surface morphology, largest grain size and grain connectivity are observed for that film. Based on these results, T-c and J(c) values of the samples studied are found to depend strongly on the microstructure. As for EDX results, the elements used for the preparation of samples are observed to distribute homogeneously. The aim of this study is not only to investigate the changes of structural and superconducting properties of the films produced in the varied time and temperature but also to determine the best ambient for the film fabrication and show the feasibility of obtaining Bi-2223 film with tailored structure.