Effect of Annealing Time and Temperature on Microstructural and Superconducting Properties of (Bi,Pb)-2212 Thin Films Produced by Magnetron Reactive Sputtering
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This study deals with the role of various annealing time (1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 8 h) and temperature (840 and 850 degrees C) on the microstructural and superconducting properties of thin films with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray analysis (XRD), electron dispersive X-Ray (EDX), resistivity and transport critical current density (J(c)) measurements. The T-c, J(c), variation of transition temperatures, hole-carrier concentration, grain size, phase purity, lattice parameter, surface morphology, element distribution, crystallinity and resistivity (at room temperature) values of the films prepared are compared with each other. Critical transition temperatures (T-c) of the samples are deduced from the dc resistivity measurement while critical current density values are estimated from the critical current and total cross-sectional area values. It is found that maximum T-c of 79.7 K and Jc of 1520 A/cm(2) are observed for the film annealed at 840 degrees C for 6 h as against 54.9 K and 30 A/cm(2) (minimum values), respectively, for the film annealed at 840 degrees C for 4 h. Moreover, SEM images indicate that the former has the best crystallinity, grain connectivity and largest grain size. Based on these results, T-c and J(c) values of the samples studied are found to depend strongly on the microstructure. Additionally, EDX results show that the elements used for the preparation of all the samples are observed to distribute homogeneously. As for the XRD results, all the samples exhibit the polycrystalline superconducting phase with the changing intensity of diffraction lines. According to the refinement of cell parameters done by considering the structural modulation, the largest lattice parameter a and c are obtained for the film annealed at 840 degrees C for 8 h. To sum up, the aim of the present study is not only to investigate the changes of microstructural and superconducting properties of the samples fabricated in the varied time and temperature but to determine the best ambient for the film fabrication and show the feasibility of obtaining Bi-2212 film with tailored structure, as well.