Effect of vanadium addition on fundamental electrical quantities of Bi-2223 crystal structure and semi-empirical model on structural disorders-defects
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The primary contribution of the present study is to determine the effect of vanadium addition on the fundamental aspects of characteristic crystalline and electrical quantities for the Bi1.8Sr2.0Ca2.2Cu3.0VxOy (0.00 <= x <= 0.30) crystal system using the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-dependent electrical resistivities and semi-empirical approaches founded on the structural disorders-defects. The de electrical resistivity results show that every electrical quantity is found to degrade regularly with the increment in the addition level as a consequence of the induced permanent structural disorders-defects, intergranular grain boundary coupling interaction problems and non-superconducting barrier regions in the bulk Bi-2223 superconducting system. The vanadium addition brings also about the characteristic transition from over-doped state to under-doped state due to the suppression in the overlapping of Cu-3d and O-2p wave functions. The XRD results indicate that the vanadium addition leads to shift the characteristic peaks towards the larger/lower angles in terms of the peak positions in the reference data, enlarge the diffraction peak widths (line broadening of X-ray diffraction), appear or disappear new peaks, increase/decrease the average grain size, lattice cell parameters and superconducting phase fractions founded on the diffraction intensities. Based on the evidences, the presence of vanadium particles in the bulk Bi-2223 superconducting phase damages crucially the fundamental characteristic features. Moreover, it is found that characteristic two-stage (bulk genuine, T-c(mid) and coherence, T-co) transition temperatures decrease systematically with the addition level. On this basis, the presence of vanadium impurity in the system leads to degrade the stabilization of superconductivity in the small homogeneous clusters in the paths and especially effective electron-phonon coupling (bipolaron in the polarizable lattices) probabilities due to the reduction of hole trap energy per Cu ions in the valence band of system. Additionally, the results display that the vanadium particles affect negatively on both the dirty limit characteristic feature and gap coefficient of Bi-2223 ceramic compound as a result of the decrement in the minimum required energy for breaking up the cooper-pairs in the system. At the same time, the electrical resistivity curves enable us to develop a sensitive semi-empirical approach to find the possible highest onset critical transition temperature for the ideal crystallinity. The model founded on the crystallinity quality displays that the possible highest onset transition temperature is about 116.037 K +/- 1.25587 K with R-adj(2) = 0.948.