Evaluating Ceramic Repair Materials in Terms of Bond Strength and Color Stability
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Purpose: To evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) and color stability (Delta E) of four ceramic veneers (VITA VM 9; VITA VM 13; VITA VMK 95; and IPS e.max Ceram) following repair with three different self-adhesive composite resins (Fusio Liquid Dentin; Constic; and Vertise Flow) and BISCO Intraoral Repair Kit + Filtek Supreme (BC + FS). Materials and Methods: A total of 96 specimens were prepared per ceramic material, and each ceramic group was divided into subgroups according to testing method (32 specimens for color stability analysis and 64 specimens for SBS testing). Delta E and SBS (SBS1 = non-aged, SBS2 = thermally aged) values of the repaired specimens were calculated. One specimen from each of the thermally aged groups was investigated under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the mean Delta E, SBS1, and SBS2 values. The differences between SBS1 and SBS2 values were analyzed using independent-samples t test. Results: The lowest Delta E values were calculated for Constic (P <= .05). The SBS2 values among all groups were lower than the SBS1 values (P <= .05). The lowest SBS2 values were observed for Vertise Flow (2.3 +/- 1.47 MPa) (P <= .05) and were below the acceptable limit of 5 MPa. Conclusion: All of the investigated repair materials in combination with the ceramic veneers exhibited Delta E values that were higher than the clinically acceptable limits. Thermal aging negatively affected the SBS values in all groups (P <= .05). All tested self-adhesive composite resins, with the exception of Vertise Flow, could be used instead of a repair kit with flowable composite resin, especially in noncooperative patients, for the purpose of repairing chipping fractures for VITA VM 9, VITA VM 13, and VITA VMK 95 (P > .05).