Combustion parameters, evolved gases, reaction mechanisms, and ash mineral behaviors of durian shells: A comprehensive characterization and joint-optimization
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In this work, the characteristic parameters, evolved gases, reaction mechanisms, and ash conversions of the durian shell (DS) combustion were quantified coupling thermogravimetry, mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence spectra analyses. The main stage of the DS combustion occurred between 130.2 and 481.9 degrees C. Its activation energy value estimated by the three model-free methods ranged from 192.82 to 213.24 kJ/mol. The average enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy changes were in the ranges of 177.74-178.47 kJ/mol, 32.00-34.25 J/(mol.K), and 200.79-207.74 kJ/mol, respectively. The third-order (F3) model best described its most likely reaction mechanism. The main evolved gas was CO2, with no SO2 emission. The ash from the DS combustion belonged to K-type ash. 618 degrees C and 8 K/min were determined as the optimal operation conditions to jointly optimize the multiple targets of the combustion responses.