Epilepsy and drug-resistant epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy: A retrospective observational study
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Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for epilepsy and drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) development in children with cerebral palsy. Method: Two hundred twenty-nine patients presenting to the pediatric neurology clinic and diagnosed as having cerebral palsy between November 2016 and November 2019 were included in the study. Medical histories and clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were examined retrospectively from patient records in the hospital data system. Results: Girls represented 103 patients (45%) and boys 126 (55%). The patients' mean age was 8.39 +/- 4.54 years. Epileptic seizures were present in 120 (52.4%) patients and drug-resistant seizures in 64 (27.9%). The risk of epilepsy was significantly higher in patients with motor or speech impairment, with hearing impairment, or undergoing first seizure in the neonatal period. We also observed a higher risk of epilepsy in patients with psychiatric comorbidity, particularly autism spectrum disorder. The risk of epilepsy was also higher in patients with microcephaly or quadriplegic cerebral palsy and in patients with focal and generalized epileptiform abnormality on electroencephalograms (EEGs). However, no significant difference was identified when all these factors were evaluated in terms of the risk of developing DRE. Conclusion: Patients with cerebral palsy have high comorbid epilepsy rates. We think that the risk of epilepsy may be higher in patients undergoing first seizure in the neonatal period, with microcephaly, with quadriplegic type cerebral palsy, and with additional psychiatric comorbidity. The rate of DRE development was very low in patients with normal EEG findings or with only background rhythm abnormalities on first EEGs during neonatal seizures. This may be regarded as a good prognostic factor for nondevelopment of DRE. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.